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Overview of Shari’a, Sunnah and the Science of Hadith  - Part 8

Honesty and Justice in All Dealings 

Justice to Everyone without Exception

Holy Quran stresses upon the need for doing justice in absolute terms in all walks of life. It mandates doing justice without any discrimination – unconditionally in all  circumstances and situations specially when exercising the authority or assisting in that respect in administration of public affairs or taking any decision regarding day to day affairs. Justice must be done, not merely in courts but in all types of dealings  without consideration of race, religion, caste, sex , status or relationship. Doing justice is regarded as duty of Muslims. 

Holy Quran also stresses upon the need of giving evidence and bearing witness truthfully and honestly and equates the duty of giving factual evidence with that of doing justice.

The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) based business dealings strictly on truth and justice. He has strongly disapproved all transactions, which involve any kind of injustice or hardship to the buyer or the seller. He wanted that both, the buyer and the seller should be truly sympathetic and considerate towards each other.

Holy Quran also stresses upon the need of giving evidence and bearing witness truthfully and honestly and equates the duty of giving factual evidence with that of doing justice.

One should not take undue advantage of the simplicity or ignorance of the other. The seller should not think that he has unrestricted liberty to extort as much as possible from the buyer. He has to be just; he should take his own due and give the buyer what is his due. Islam condemns every kind of injustice and exploitation in human relations, wants its followers to conduct business in a sublime spirit of justice tempered with human kindness.


Hadith have been and would always remain a vital source of  understanding Islamic ideology. Almost all Muhadittin of the first and second century analysed the Isnad or other narrations on the basis of degree of veracity and reliability on the understanding or interpretation of the narrators. Hadiths have been classified according to the degree of reliability and include those classified as weak. And none of the Muhadittin worth his salt has vouched for that the element of any degree of unintentional distortion or obscurity  has been ruled out completely and they discarded those they thought were not  reliable at all. In the early days of Islam hypocrites mischieviously narrated many fake hadiths. Important thing is to understand the logic and objectivity of any saying or action or practice rather than blind adnerence. 

Not all Hadiths can be given the force of generalized law or a  mandatory practice for all times to come. The same thing applies to different fatwas and laws of sharia'h. For instance in Bukhari Sharif we find different hadiths giving different ways of wadu. Underlying principle in all of them is cleanliness and piety. Similarly the underl;ying principle in use of miswak is keeping the teeth clean. 

Blind, rigid, illogical adherence to the ritual of moon sighting has kept the Islamic calendar out of practical usage. As often seen First of  a month falls in Saudia say on Monday but on that Monday we in  Pakistan may still be 29th or 30 the of a month until the Ruyite Hilal committee actually sees the moon. The underlying  principle of the Hadith is to follow lunar calendar. Many sects follow the Egyptian lunar calendar for all religious festivities on this principle. 

About music the Haidths quoted gives many Ulema the impression that Holy Prophet condemned musical gathering where prostitutes performed but not the music itself. In case of paintings and statues and graves giving reverence or treating that object of worship or idolatry was prohibited. 

The difference of opinion that exist can best be solved by Ijma and opening the gates of  Ijtihad. And the constitution of Pakistan provides that our  laws cannot be inconsistent with the principles of Holy Quran and Sunnah. It does not, however, mean Theocratic form of Government. 

End of the paper

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May Allah forgive us if we have made any mistake in giving overview of the evolution of Sharia and science of Hadith..

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