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"Islam established in the world a great tradition of dignified fair dealing and created a society more free from wide spread cruelty and social oppression than any society had been in the world before”._H.G. Wells (1866-1946) wrote:   
An Overview of the Science of Hadith, 
Sunnah and Evolution of Sharia'
By Shah Nawaz Khan, Editor Weekly PakLink edgiest

Overview and Links to different chapters

- -This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam. - -

Al Quran, 005.003

1.The source of Islamic doctrine
   Holy Quran, Sunnah, Sharia', Fiqah and Hadith,  Different Schools of Thought
     Primary source of Sunnah
2.Historic Background.
     Caliph Mansur's attempt to prescribe uniform code,  Imam Malik's views
3.Famous Books of Hadiths
4. Bigotry and Dogmatism paves the way for Division of Ummah
5.Classification of Hadiths
6.Evolution of Sharia’h and Differences of Opinions
    Sharia  and Modern courts, Blasphemy, Hudood Ordinance
7.Justice to Everyone without Exception
     Resolving differences of opinion and Beliefs, Ijtehad and Role of Parliament.
The equality of man; and  the belief that religious duties include in doing justice, loving mercy, and living in peace are the basic tenets of Islam..
Preface: In different Internet forums heated debates have been going on about Sharia, Sunnah and Hadiths.  A small group contends that Sharia is outdated and we are not required to follow Hadiths in the modern times and Quran alone is sufficient. On the other hand the majority believes that we must adhere to  Sunnah devotedly.  These briefs have been prepared on the basis of different thoughts expressed on the subject and study of different articles and books and predominant views have been summarized. 

There is more than one reason for my interest in Islamic studies. My cousin late Mohammad Ismail Shaheedi was very fond of Islamic philosophy and we used to have weekly sessions about ‘tassawuf’ in which my father who was principle of Karachi Academy and his friends also participated. Those discussions and the writings of such great scholars as Ghazali have left lasting impressions and I found myself better equipped to deal with the problems of life. 

During my studies for examinations of Chartered Insurance Institute (London) and my long career in life insurance from the middle to the highest echelons of management, a question often asked was “Is Insurance prohibited by Islam?” Insurance companies had gathered fatwas of some eminent Ulemas (scholars of Islam) and quotations of such prominent personalities as Allama Iqbal, Sir. Sultan Mohammad Agha Khan, Liaquat Ali Khan etc. favoring Insurance that were published in different leaflets for use of Insurance agents. On the other hand from time to time articles and books were also published containing fatwas and declaring Interest and insurance as ‘haram’ and the impressions that I gathered was that those writings were based on faulty comprehension of Insurance and banking. 

President General Zialul Haque had constituted Islamic Ideological Council, which inter alia, intended to formulate recommendations about Insurance during the decade of 1980. I was nominated by the Chairman, State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan as a member of the Management team to deal with the questions raised by Islamic Ideological Council and to hold discussion with them. That meant to be involved in deeper study of Islamic ideals and scanning various books for proper understanding of the basic concepts, practices and their rationale. Indeed Islam is a simple and perfect religion but Islamic philosophy is very vast and fascinating subject and I feel I have not even scratched its surface. But if these briefs help broaden understanding of Islam as a perfect religion, their purpose would be served.

Comments and suggestion to improve this paper would be most welcome and may be sent to shah1936@yahoo.com
May Allah forgive us if we have made any mistake in giving account of the evolution of Sharia and science of Hadith.
And We have made (this Scripture) easy in thy language only that they may heed. 
Al Quran, 044.058 

O ye who believe! Guard your own souls: If ye follow (right) guidance, no hurt can come to you from those who stray. the goal of you all is to Allah: it is He that will show you the truth of all that ye do. 


Literally the word 'Islam' signifies submission to the will of God almighty. Metaphorically Islam is referred to as the religion of truth. According to Holy Quran Islam is the same 
religion that God Almighty had enjoined on Noah, Abraham, Moses and Isa (Jesus) and other prophets before them. 

Related Article
Religion of Peace

According to Holy Quran Islam is the same religion that God Almighty had enjoined on Noah, Abraham, Moses and Isa (Jesus) and other prophets before them but Allah has perfected it and made it easy to follow. 

Holy Quern shows us that, because of moral weakness of mankind, God sent prophets to teach both individuals and nations correct moral and spiritual standards and values. As the messages of all prophets emanate from the same divine source, religions are basically one. All prophets are the perfect examplers for humanity. And Muhammad (sws) was the last and final prophet and that the Quran is the final and perfect revelation of God, consummating and superseding all earlier revelations like Torah and Bible. 

In number of verses of Holy Quran we are told to follow the teachings and advice of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sws) and to ponder over the nature and acquire knowledge, use reason in judgment and do justice to everyone without exception. But it is a sad fact is that the Ummah is divided in different sects who have adopted different practices and Fiqahs and interpret the Holy Quran and Hadith in different shades of meaning. Few scholars like Maulana Amin Ahsan Islahi have tried to bridge the gap. His work  was translated in English and published in 1977 by
S. A. Rauf under the title "Islamic Law – Concept and Codification"
The foreword written by Mohammad Afzal Cheema, Judge, 
Supreme Court of Pakistan and an excerpt from his foreword
 is given below:

"Realizing the harm done by a rigid approach and indiscriminate
blind adherence to the juristic doctrine of only one of the famous
jurists, the Maulana has strongly advocated and emphasized 
the need for resolving juristic diversities and conflict through
a critical choice of a view in determining in a spirit of intellectual freedom its proximity to and closer harmony with the foundational principles. In this context, it would not be out of place to refer to his other book "Resolution of Juristic Difference" which too should be advantageously translated in English." 

It is hoped more scholars and writers would come forward and help fulfill the dream of unity of Ummah.
Continued on next page

O ye who believe! Believe in Allah and His Messenger, and the scripture which He hath sent to His Messenger
and the scripture which He sent to those before (him). Any who denieth Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Day of Judgment, hath gone far, far astray. 
Islam is not opposed to modernism and multiculturalism

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